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Endometrial Cancer Diagnosis

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An abnormal growth of the lining of uterus (endometerium) is termed as endometrial cancer. It is more common in women in the age group of 50 to 60 years. It is also recognized as a uterine cancer, as it is related to the uterus. Endometrial cancer ranks fourth among all the other cancers in women. Understanding the symptoms and consulting the doctor immediately plays a vital role in early endometrial cancer diagnosis.

Early symptoms of endometrial cancer:

  • Unusual discharge from the vagina (other than menses)
  • Abnormal bleeding from the vaginal opening (between menses, after menopauses
  • Heavy bleeding through the vagina

If you experience any of uterine cancer symptoms in you, consult your doctor to get it diagnosed immediately. Your doctor may use any one or combination of the following methods to detect the presence of cancerous cells in your body.

Different methods of endometrial cancer diagnosis:

  • Endometrial Biopsy:

    In this method, your doctor will take a sample of tissues from the lining of your uterus (endometrium). In order to get the sample, a slight and slender tube is inserted into the uterus via the cervix; a gentle scrape is made on it and the sample is taken by suction. This sample is examined under the microscope to observe the presence of cancer cells

Hysteroscopy:

This procedure also helps to examine inside the interior of the uterus. In this process, a camera is inserted with the help of a thin, lighted tube in the uterus through the cervix. This camera detects the presence of cancer in uterus. Tissues can also be removed for undergoing biopsy.

Sonohysterography:

This process is generally used for the women who have used tamoxifen. Sonohysterography uses conjunction of sterile saline with transvaginal ultrasound. A sterile saline is inserted into the uterus in order to expand the organ, so that the doctors can get a better view of the inner space for examination.

Dilation & Curettage (D&C):

If you find that all other tests do not help you to get the accurate results, you can prefer dilation and curettage ((D&C). This is one of the outpatient surgical procedures. In this procedure, your cervix is widened slightly in order to get some scrapes tissue inside the uterus. During this procedure, your doctor may give you a general anesthesia. Conscious sedation can also be used to reduce the anxiety and discomfort of the patient without putting them to sleep. It takes almost one hour to accomplish this process.

Sample of tissues is taken to determine the presence of cancer cells in the uterus. The tissues may also be tested to observe if they involve hormone receptors that reduce the growth of cancer cells.

Imaging a test that helps endometrial cancer diagnosis:

Proctoscopy and Cystoscopy:

If a woman undergoes problems that suggest spread of cancer in the bladder as well as the rectum, a thin lighted tube is induced in the uterus to observe the cancer cells.

Photocopy: Tube is injected in the rectum.

Cystoscopy: Tube is injected in the bladder via urethra.

Positron emission tomography (PET):

This is a new technique which uses radioactive glucose (sugar) to identify the presence of cancer cells, since these cells uses more glucose as compared to the normal cells their concentration can be detected by using this technique. A scanner is used to spot the radioactive deposits as well as the minor deposition of the endometrial cancer cells. But keep in mind that this process is not used often.

Computed tomography (CT):

CT scan is used to study the cross sectional images of your body through x-ray procedures. This can also helps to determine the cancer cells in the womb.

Sonography or Transvaginal ultrasound:

This process uses sound waves to get the images of the body parts. Transvaginal ultrasound uses a probe that gives off sound waves when inserted through the vagina. These sound waves help to creates pictures inside the uterus as well as other pelvic organs. These images can often reveal whether the endometrium is thicker than normal.

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI):

In this method, strong magnets and radio waves are used instead of X-rays. The energy generated by these waves is riveted and released in a particular pattern. Normal conditions give typical graph while presence of cancer cells shows a different pattern in the graph.

Blood tests for endometrial cancer diagnosis:

CA 125 blood test:

CA 125 is a substance released in the blood of the patient seeking to detect uterine cancer. High level of CA 125 in blood suggests presence of cancer cells in the body.

Complete blood count (CBC):

This method helps to measure the presence of different cells in the blood such as white blood cells, red blood cells platelets.

Any of the above methods can be used for endometrial cancer diagnosis. If one does not work on you, you can prefer another to get the accurate results.

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