Melanoma Cancer Diagnosis

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Melanoma cancer diagnosis is very important in the initial stage because this is the toughest skin cancer to fight. The metastasis of this cancer is the fastest than any other cancer, so one should be very prompt in self detection of this cancer.

The ways of diagnosing this cancer are

Medical history and physical exam

Melanoma is a cancer which is caused mostly to the people who have had this in their family history. This is a cancer that spreads very fast if not diagnosed on time. General type of questions will be asked by the doctor to understand your medical condition. Physical examination is also done as a part of diagnosis to see if there have been any changes in the size of the mole, or the color of the skin. He will generally ask you the most common melanoma cancer syndrome, like bleeding, itching or pain in the mole. If any of this is present, then there are chances that this is a type of a cancer which has developed in the skin.

If he is suspicious about the mole or the lump on the skin, a physical exam will be conducted in that particular area. Here the doctor will check if there is any sort of change in the size or the color of the mole. There will be a full body analysis to check if there are any abnormal spots or boils on the skin other than the area under observation.

As this is a physical exam which is conducted on the skin, the doctor may also check the nodes; he may check if there is any sort of a development beneath the skin. As this cancer spreads very fast, showing less early symptoms, it is necessary to check if any metastasis of this cancer has already occurred. If any abnormality is observed in the lymph node, it is an indication that the cancer has spread.

If a general physician is undertaking your treatment, you will be moved on to a dermatologist who is a skin specialist for the correct type of treatment to cause the least damage to the skin.

Skin Biopsy

Skin biopsy is the most common and the most trusted way to diagnose this cancer. All the skin doctors advice melanoma cancer diagnosis with the help of various skin biopsy options that are available. In a biopsy session, the doctor removes a part of the skin where the lump or the mole is present and sends it for laboratory testing. Local anesthesia is provided to the patient while the biopsy is done so that no pain is felt while the skin/tissues are removed. These tissues are then checked under a microscope to see if there is any abnormal growth in the body.

The biopsy report may show any of the following

  • A common or general mole which is not cancerous or will not turn into a tumor. It is caused due to any normal occurrence;
  • A mole which is also normal but is showing some signs of infection which can lead to an issue (tumor) at a later stage. A little part of the skin is removed for further testing ;
  • A melanoma cancer requires urgent operation as soon as possible

To check if melanoma is present in the body, various types of diagnostic measures are available: -

  1. Excision biopsy: - This is a biopsy which removes the entire mole or the lump from the body. The border of the mole is also removed taking some margin if the cells have spread beyond that part. After this mole or lump is removed, the skin is stitched so that the cut is closed. This is a long process and may require a few days in the hospital. This is the case if the cancer is large in size.

  2. Saucerization biopsy: - This is also known as the scoop biopsy. This biopsy is done so that the whole infected tissue can be removed. This then gives result to a very deep hole in the skin, but it is treatable at the same time with the help of a dermatopathologist

  3. Incision biopsy: - This is also called as core biopsy. This is a way by which only the sample of the growth is removed from the body and it is further tested. The hole that is formed after the removal is closed by giving stitches. This is done so that correct treatment can be given to eliminate this cancer as fast as possible.

  4. Fine-needle biopsy: - This is a treatment which is provided with the help of a syringe which looks like a normal injection. This is pricked into the area where there is no strange development and a small tissue is removed. This area is generally near the lymph nodes of the skin.

  5. Punch biopsy: - This is also used for removing the sample from the infected area of the skin. The sample is removed in a cylindrical shape and is tested. This is a sample which includes epidermis, dermis, and the parts which are present in the underlying tissue. This biopsy is performed with the help of a long surgical tool, which has a round shape and sharp edges.

This is a cancer which is the most severe form of skin malignancy. This cancer is also responsible to produce large malignant tumors in the brain, lung, liver, or other organs. Melanoma cancer diagnosis is very important as soon as any change in the skin is observed.

This cancer hits any age group, but it is more commonly seen in the western nations. It is important to keep in mind the various symptoms and source of melanoma cancer to take precautions.

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