Penile Cancer Stages
Penile cancer stages are the primary indicators of the location and metastasis of cancer cells. Each stage describes the peculiar behavior of malignant cells at that particular time and the extent of damage they may cause to penile or other nearby areas. Stage is determined after thorough examination of the behavior of abnormal cells in the areas where they have invaded.
Penile Cancer Stages Concept and Importance
Penile cancer is a rare type of malignant growth developing in the penis. Chances of better life expectancy are high if the tumors are detected and treated early. Life expectancy decreases considerably if the abnormal cells start to metastasize and reach the lymph nodes. Diagnosis pattern varies according to the origin and growth of tumors and also depends on the age of tumors. If the tumors are quite old, it can be assumed that the cancerous cells are not limited to a certain area but have invaded multiple organs.
All such doubts become clear if the stage of penile cancer is known. Stage is actually the status of abnormal growth of cells and also displays the amount of damage caused to the penile areas. Rise in stage informs about the increase in severity of the tumors. Penile cancer is generally divided into four different stages with the fourth stage being the severest and the first one being the most lenient.
Survival rate of penile cancer is different for different stages. People suffering from the first stage of penile cancer, have a good survival rate of over 85% and the chances of recurrence of tumor cells are generally lower. Survival rate of people suffering from second and third stage of the disease is usually more than 50% but less than 60%. It may vary according to the health of the person and the form of treatment he undergoes. Survival rate dips considerably to less than 11%, if a person reaches into fourth stage of the disease and may have to undergo stern medical treatments to ensure survival.
Stages of penile cancer are highly influenced by a variety of factors. Geographical factors play an important role in progression of the disease from lower to higher stages. People residing in areas of Europe and North America are less susceptible to the disease with just 1 out of every 100,000 males being infected by penile cancer. The rate is comparatively high at 10 out of every 100,000 people in the regions of Asia, Africa and South America. Thus, the reason behind progression of stages needs to be diagnosed according to the geographical location of the victim and treatment should be given accordingly.
Sexual diseases like AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome) and Human Papillomavirus (HPV) pose danger to penile health and can cause the tumors to reach higher stages in a considerably less amount of time. People not infected by such viruses have the benefit of higher life expectancy. Other habits like smoking, tobacco eating and consuming alcohol can be dangerous for penile health and may benefit the malignant cells to reach advanced stages at a rapid rate.
Penile Cancer Stages in Detail
Penile cancer progresses in four unique stages with each stage representing the status of tumor metastasis. Stage 0 of penile cancer is also known as carcinoma in situ and is the most preliminary stage of cancerous development. Cell abnormality is usually detected on the penis surface but the situation is not so serious and can be handled by normal medication or basic surgical methods.
Stage 1 is a bit severe than carcinoma in situ as the malignant cells invade tissues and cells present in the penile areas. Normal cells present on the glands and the foreskin is their primary target.
Stage 2 is a phase wherein the abnormal cells reach the connective tissues and lymph node in the groin. They may also affect the erectile tissues and cause shortage of blood-supply leading to complications during penile erection.
Stage 3 is an advanced phase of penile cancer wherein the tumors spread to groins and also infect more than one lymph node. They may also metastasize to prostate and urethra or even the testicular areas.
Stage 4 is the last stage of the disease and is highly severe. Survival rate is around 11% as the tumors develop high tendency to metastasize. Malignant cells reach the pelvis and may also spread to different parts of the body through lymph nodes by the metastasis. Recurrent phase is a stage of redevelopment of tumors and usually occurs in those who are treated during late stages of the disease.
Penile cancer stages can be very helpful to shortlist the most effective diagnosis pattern and select the right type of treatment for elimination of tumors. Strong immune system is very necessary to restrict the cell abnormality to a particular stage and prevent severe health complications. Healthy lifestyle and proper dietary pattern is quite advantageous for minimizing the probability of cancerous infection in the penis. Undergoing circumcision surgery at birth can provide a life-time shield for a person from being infected by penis cancer.