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Rectal Cancer Surgery

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Rectal cancer surgery is quite common these days because of its reliability and effectiveness in treating the tumors that develop in the rectum. It can be of various forms and intensities depending upon the nature of tumors and life expectancy of the person. Surgery is more effective for people suffering from the disease for the first time as compared to those undergoing rectal cancer recurrences.

Rectal cancer surgery concept

Rectal cancer is a serious rectal disorder and may be fatal if not treated in time. Adenocarcinoma is the most frequent form of rectal cancer and originates in the tissues present on the glandular or epithelial areas of the rectum. Almost, 98% of the overall cases of cancerous development in the rectum belong to this type and the cancer can metastasize quite rapidly if not cured in the initial phases.

Rectal cancer has high chances of spreading to vital areas like colon, bowel, lungs, liver or kidney and may impact the person's health severely. Colon and rectum cancer is also known as colorectal cancer and is the third major cause of death due to a type of cancer. Both men and women are at an equal risk of being prone to the disease and people above 50 years are at a higher risk as compared to the young persons.

Rectal cancer has a high survival rate of more than 90% if detected in the initial phase and treated in a proper and systematic way. The rate dips considerably in the last stage and may range anywhere between 6-25% depending upon the health of the person and effectiveness of the treatment undergone. More than 70% of rectal cancer deaths occur due to late detection of cancer and delayed treatment.

Rectal cancer surgery plays a vital role in such cases. Surgery for rectal cancer is a way of removing tumors by surgical methods. It can be of various types and depends primarily on the size, origin and nature of tumors. Surgical methods usually involve partial or complete removal of the organ infected by malignant cells and can be done simultaneously with the chemical or radiation treatments.

Surgery is very helpful in improving the life expectancy figures of the victim and results into a fair survival rate for rectal cancer. Surgery can be very helpful to avoid recurrence of cancer cells in the rectum and has high chances of eliminating the tumors completely. Also, it is one of the safest methods to treat the disease that comes with minimal side-effects.

Most of the victims undergoing surgery recover quite fast mentally as well as physically. Rectal cancer treatment does not cause any major damage to the rectal or other vital areas of the body and helps the patient to lead a normal and active life. Success rate of surgery for rectal cancer is almost 100% if the tumors are of benign type or are detected and diagnosed in the pre-cancerous stages.

Factors affecting rectal cancer surgery

Rectal cancer is caused due to a variety of risk factors ranging from the environmental conditions to the medical history of the victim. Numbers of cases of rectal cancer are higher in black people as compared to the white people and so are the numbers of deaths caused due to the disease. People residing in the industrially advanced and highly-developed areas are more vulnerable to cancerous attack in the rectum.

Persons suffering from Human Papillomavirus (HPV), habitual to smoking, drinking or excess tobacco consumption have much higher chances of rectal cancer. Frequent and excess consumption of red meat and other food rich in fats may damage the rectal areas and make it susceptible to cancerous invasion.

Age is an important factor influencing the decision to opt for surgical form of treatment for rectal cancer. Medical complications increase with age and the body's sustainability to bear strong treatments also decreases. Also, the rectal cancer life expectancy may vary with age and is not the same throughout. Thus, a type of surgery has to be recommended considering all such variations as inefficient treatment may worsen the case.

Person who has been treated with the disease in the past or has a personal or family history of rectal or any other forms of cancer may fall prey to the disease easily. Thus, proper preventive or curative measures need to be taken while recommending surgery for such people.

Forms of rectal cancer surgery

Primary tumor resection is the most preliminary form of surgical method used to eliminate tumors if they are small in size and are restricted to a particular area.

Preventive surgery is a kind of surgical process recommended to remove benign tumors as such tumors have high chances to turn malignant if ignored for a long time.

Laparoscopic resection is a modern form of surgery and is proven to be a reliable way to eliminate rectal tumors. It can be used as a diagnostic or a curative technique and helps in treating the cell abnormality quite effectively.

Diagnostic surgery is a kind of surgical technique used to inspect the tumors and understand their scope. It can produce maximum results if undergone right in the early phases of rectal cancer.

Laser surgery is helpful in eliminating tumors by exposing them to high-intensity lasers.

Cryosurgery is a form of method in which the abnormal cells are eliminated by freezing them with liquid nitrogen.

Cytoreductive or debulking surgery plays a significant role when the complete removal of tumors may damage the victim's body and only a part of the tumor has to be removed

Reconstructive or restorative surgery is helpful to restore the appearance and functioning of the rectum or other areas affected during surgery and helps the victim to recover fast.

Rectal cancer surgery should be taken under thorough medical supervision as any flaws in the treatment may increase the chances of rectal cancer recurrence to a great extent. Nature of surgery also depends on the stage of cancer. Palliative surgery has come up as an important concept to minimize sufferings of the patient and boost his morale.

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